How to adapt the electrical installation to high -power receivers?

How to adapt the electrical installation to high -power receivers?

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In electrical installations of single -family houses, high power consumption is mainly generated by heating devices in the form of:

Power consumption through these devices can reach a dozen or so kilowats, which, combined with the simultaneous operation of other power consumers.As a result, the main protection of the installation and disconnection of the current throughout the building will be met.When deciding to buy and install "power -eaten" devices, we must balance the permissible load of the connection with connection power and the value of the current.

Approximate heating powers of popular devices are:

Wyłączniki nadprądowe o nominale 16 A to standardowe zabezpieczenia przeciążeniowe, photo. Eaton.

Power configuration

The building can be powered from a single -phase connection, but a more favorable solution will be a three -phase system, which will ensure greater certainty of the current supply and will allow for a higher load on the installation.

In a single -phase installation, the connection capacity translates in a simple way into the possibility of loading the installation corresponding to the product of the 230 V phase voltage and main protection, e.g..25 A.Such an installation can only be charged to 5750 W, which must be taken into account when choosing devices whose unit power should not exceed 4.5-5.0 kW.

Natomiast przy zasilaniu z sieci trójfazowej i przy takim samym zabezpieczeniu głównym25 A, możliwe obciążenie będzie nie tylko trzykrotnie większe (3 x 5750 W), ale przy podłączeniu odpowiednio dostosowanych odbiorników znacznie większe.This is due to the possibility of using two types of voltage in the three -phase installation - a phase with a value of 230 V occurring between the phase and neutral and wired wire wire, which appears between the neighboring phase wires. Dzięki temu instalacje można obciążyć niemal sześciokrotnie większą mocą w porównaniu z zasilaniem jednofazowym: 3 x 400 V x25 A.

Another limitation in the load capacity of installations and individual circuits is the cross -section of the cables used.When connected to high -power receivers, their diameters should correspond to the manufacturer's recommendations and cannot be smaller along the entire length of this circuit.

Distribution and protection of the power circuit

All receivers with a power above 3 kW should be powered from a separate circuit secured with an overcurrent switch with a suitably selected nominal current and delay characteristics.

Jak przystosować instalację elektryczną do odbiorników o dużej mocy?

The current value of the protection is most often determined by the assembly instructions or calculate it ourselves, dividing the load capacity by the supply voltage, e.g..:

5 kW : 230 V = 21,7 A (potrzebny wyłącznik25 A przy zasilaniu z jednej fazy).

If the heating elements are adapted for power supply with a voltage of 400 V, breaking the nominal protection will then be:

5 kw: 400 V = 12.5 A (we accept the 16 A fuse).

The supply current value also determines the cross -section of the cable.Approximate, using multi -coffee wires, the permissible long -term load current should not be greater than:

Installation cables, depending on the location of the receiver, are carried out in plaster or in tubes to the walls of the walls and ended with a connection can with electrical clamps.Five -free wires are laid in the three -phase installation, and in a single -phase - three -speed cables.You can also install a plug socket with a properly selected permissible load - most often as three -phase.

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Connection configuration

The method of connecting the electric heater, ceramic or induction stove, accumulative radiator with dynamic discharge is determined by the assembly instructions of the device model.The work should be carried out by an authorized electrician, noting in the product warranty card.

Independent connection is risky, not only because of the possibility of causing damage and exposure of users to electric shock, but also the loss of equipment guarantee.

Connecting single -phase devices to the power supply does not cause problems.There are no assembly variants and clamps on the device, usually marked with the letter L, combine with the phase cable (black or brown insulation);N-clamp N with a neutral cable (blue insulation) and PE grounding with a yellow-green cable.

In the case of a three -phase power supply, the connection variant, and their possible arrangement is determined by the diagram in the installation instructions.

In the stoves, individual heating fields are most often adapted to supply 230 V, which allows them to supply them also from a single -phase network and from an additional circuit (when the installation cables have too small cross -section).

W kuchenkach ceramicznych lub indukcyjnych pola grzejne najczęściej wymagają zasilania napięciem 230 V, photo. mhtyl / forum.budujemydom.pl

Special security

In homes with high demand for electricity - e.g..heated with electricity - connection power may not always be enough for the simultaneous operation of several energy -intensive devices.In such cases, to avoid the operation of excess switches, power consumption limiters are installed.Thanks to them, two circuits are formed - priority and non -priority, while the latter will be turned off when the overall power consumption exceeds the specific value.When the power consumed, the limiter automatically restore the power supply of disconnected devices.

For example, if we turn on the flow of high power water heater, the circuit of electric heaters will be disconnected during its functioning, which will not reduce the comfort of staying indoors, because the temperature - thanks to the thermal inertia of the walls and equipment - will persist for a long time at a satisfactory level.

Author: Cezary Jankowski

Prepared by: Martyna Nowak-Ciupa

photo.Opening: Puhimec / Stock.adobe.com